Arnold J. Toynbee

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Arnold J. Toynbee
Arnold J. Toynbee
Datu pertsonalak
Izen osoa Arnold Joseph Toynbee
Jaio 1889ko apirilaren 14a
Londres (Ingalaterra)
Hil 1975eko urriaren 22a
York (Ingalaterra)

Arnold Joseph Toynbee (Londres, 1889ko apirilaren 14a - York, 1975eko urriaren 22a) historialari ingelesa.

Historiaren filosofian aditua, zibilizazioen garapenari buruzko teoria klinikoa proposatu zuen. Toynbeeren arabera, zibilizazioak sortzen dira gizatalde batek dituen erronkei (naturalak edo sozialak) erantzuna emateko. Teoria honen ustetan, zibilizazio batek aurrera egiten du ez bakarrik erronkari emandako erantzunak arrakasta duenean, baizik eta erronka berriak ere sortzen dituenean.

Zibilizazio baten gainbehera dator, sortzen zaizkion erronkei aurre egiteko gai ez denean. Erlijio-faktoreak oso kontuan izan zituen erronkei eman beharreko erantzunak formulatzerakoan.

Teoria honen ondorioz, Toynbeek ukatu zuen zibilizazioen eboluzioaren determinismoa, eta hauek azkenean hil egin behar dutela (Oswald Spengler bezalako historiografoei aurka eginez). Hori dela eta, berak uste zuen mendebaldeko zibilizazio modernoak ordura arteko zibilizazioen gainbehera-arau orokor horretatik ihes egin zezakeela.

Autore emankorra izan zen, eta bere lanik ezagunena eta eraginkorrena A Study of History izan zen; 12 liburuki 1934tik 1961era idatziak.

Lan nagusiak[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

  • Nationality and the War (Dent 1915)
  • The Destruction of Poland: A Study in German Efficiency (1916)
  • The Belgian Deportations, with a statement by Viscount Bryce (T. Fisher Unwin 1917)
  • The German Terror in Belgium: An Historical Record (Hodder & Stoughton 1917)
  • The German Terror in France: An Historical Record (Hodder & Stoughton 1917)
  • Turkey: A Past and a Future (Hodder & Stoughton 1917)
  • The Western Question in Greece and Turkey: A Study in the Contact of Civilizations (Constable 1922)
  • A Journey to China, or Things Which Are Seen (Constable 1931)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol I: Introduction; The Geneses of Civilizations
    • Vol II: The Geneses of Civilizations
    • Vol III: The Growths of Civilizations
(Oxford University Press 1934)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol IV: The Breakdowns of Civilizations
    • Vol V: The Disintegrations of Civilizations
    • Vol VI: The Disintegrations of Civilizations
(Oxford University Press 1939)
  • Civilization on Trial (Oxford University Press 1948)
  • The Prospects of Western Civilization (New York, Columbia University Press 1949)
  • The World and the West (Oxford University Press 1953)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol VII: Universal States; Universal Churches
    • Vol VIII: Heroic Ages; Contacts between Civilizations in Space
    • Vol IX: Contacts between Civilizations in Time; Law and Freedom in History; The Prospects of the Western Civilization
    • Vol X: The Inspirations of Historians; A Note on Chronology
(Oxford University Press 1954)
  • An Historian's Approach to Religion (Oxford University Press 1956)
  • Christianity among the Religions of the World (New York, Scribner 1957; London, Oxford University Press 1958)
  • Democracy in the Atomic Age (Melbourne, Oxford University Press 1957)
  • East to West: A Journey round the World (Oxford University Press 1958)
  • Hellenism: The History of a Civilization (Oxford University Press 1959)
  • A Study of History
    • Vol XI: Historical Atlas and Gazetteer
(Oxford University Press 1959)
(Oxford University Press 1961)
  • Between Oxus and Jumna (Oxford University Press 1961)
  • America and the World Revolution (Oxford University Press 1962)
  • The Economy of the Western Hemisphere (Oxford University Press 1962)
  • The Present-Day Experiment in Western Civilization (Oxford University Press 1962)
  • Universal States (New York, Oxford University Press 1963)
  • Between Niger and Nile (Oxford University Press 1965)
  • Hannibal's Legacy: The Hannibalic War's Effects on Roman Life
    • Vol I: Rome and Her Neighbours before Hannibal's Entry
    • Vol II: Rome and Her Neighbours after Hannibal's Exit
(Oxford University Press 1965)
  • Change and Habit: The Challenge of Our Time (Oxford University Press 1966)
  • Acquaintances (Oxford University Press 1967)
  • Between Maule and Amazon (Oxford University Press 1967)
  • Experiences (Oxford University Press 1969)
  • Some Problems of Greek History (Oxford University Press 1969)
  • Cities on the Move (Oxford University Press 1970)
  • Surviving the Future (Oxford University Press 1971)
  • Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World (Oxford University Press 1973)
  • Mankind and Mother Earth: A Narrative History of the World (Oxford University Press 1976)
  • The Greeks and Their Heritages (Oxford University Press 1981)

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