Beowulf

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Beowulf
Beowulf Cotton MS Vitellius A XV f. 137r.png
Jatorria
Sorrera-urteaezezaguna
IzenburuaBeowulf eta Bēowulf
Honen izena daramaBeowulf (en) Itzuli
Ezaugarriak
Genero artistikoaheroic poetry (en) Itzuli eta epic poem (en) Itzuli
Hizkuntzaanglosaxoiera
Egile-eskubideakjabetza publiko
Deskribapena
Honen parte daNowell Codex (en) Itzuli
Fikzioa
Kontakizunaren tokiaEskandinavia

Beowulf (anglosaxoieraz ˈbeːo̯wʊlf edo ˈbeːəwʊlf, euskaraz hitzez hitz "erle-otsoa" esan nahi duena) poema epiko anglosaxoi anonimo bati ematen zaion izena da, anglosaxoieraz eta bertsokera aliteratiboan idatzia. Orotara 3.182 bertsolerro izanik, hizkuntza horretan idatzitako testurik luzeena da eta poesia anglosaxoiaren corpus osoaren ehuneko 10 osatzen du.

Epopeia gisa daukan inportantzia, saxoierazko Nibelungenlied (Nibelungoen eraztuna), gaztelaniazko El Cantar del mio Cid, frantsesezko Errolanen kantua eta irlanderazko Lebor Gabála Érenn (Irlandako konkisten liburua) lanen parekoa da.

Testuinguru historikoa[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

Olerkiaren gertakariak VI. mendean zehar garatzen dira, eta ez dute pertsonaia Ingelesik aipatzen. Kontaturiko istorioak mitologia, historia, fikzio zein kondairazko elemetuak barneratzen ditu; Beowulf bera, bere garaikideak diren eskuizkribu anglo-saxoietan aipatzen ez den arren, hauetan (gehienbat jatorri eskandinaviarrekoak) agertzen diren pertsonaiak olerkian zehar erabiliz. Bai pertsonaiak (Healfdene, Hroðgar, Halga, Hroðulf, Eadgils eta Ohthere), bai klanak (Scylding, Scylfing eta Wulfing) baita gertakizun batzuk (Vänern Lakuko Izotzeko Gudua, esaterako).[1][2]

Autore eta datazioa[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

Egilearen izena ez da ezagutzen, eta idatzi zeneko garaiaren inguruan adituen artean eztabaidak egon dira.[3] Adituek K. o. VIII. mendetik XII. mendera arteko datak ematen dituzte.[4][5]

Eskuizkribua[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

BLBeowulf.jpg

Lanak Nowell kodexean, Cotton Vitellius A. XV izeneko eskuizkribuaren bigarren bolumen iraun du.[6] Eskruizkribu hau lau olerkigintza anglo-saxoi eskuizkribu nagusietako bat da; San Kristoferren Bizitzaren (The Life of Saint Christopher) lehen fragmentua, Ekialdeko Mirariak (The Wonders of the East),[7] Alexandro Handiaren Gutuna Aristotelentzat (Epistola Alexandri ad Aristotelem),[8] Beowulf, eta Judith lanak barneratzen dituelarik. Baina, Beowulfen olerkiak garaturiko fama dela eta, Beowulf eskuizkribua bezala ere ezagutzen da.

Britainiar Liburutegian gordeta dago, Cotton bildumarekin batera.[9][10][11] 1731an izandako sute batean, eskuizkribuaren orri batzuk hondatu ziren.[12][13]

Laburpena[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

Istorioa bi zati nagusitan dago bereizia: Lehenengo zatian, Beowulf heroi gauta Danimarkako Heorot herrira doa, Hroðgar daniarren (edo juto izenekoen) erregeak deituta, bertakoak babestera Grendel izeneko munstro izugarri baten erasoetatik. Grendel hil ondoren, honen ama hiltzen du, ezpata miragarri baten laguntzaz. Hirugarren zatia Beowulfen zahartzaroan gertatzen da, gauten errege delarik. Beowulfek Herensuge handi bat garaituko du, baina bera ere herensugearekin batera hilko da. Bere gorpuari su eman eta errautsak itsasertzean jartzen dituzte, herensugeak bere leizean gordetzen zituen altxorren ondoan.

Pertsonaiak[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

Beowulfen aipaturiko tribuen mapa (VI. mendea), Beowulfek Heorotera eginiko bidaia irudikatuz.[14][15][16]

Tribu eta klanak[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

  • Brondingak - Tribu germanikoa, seguruenik Brännö irlan kokatua, eta Breca, Bewolfen lagunminaren jatorria.[17]
  • Daniarrak - Beren zentroa Sjælland irlan zuen tribuu germanikoa.
  • Gautak - Suedia hegoaldean bizi zen germaniar jatorriko herria, egungo Götalanden.
  • Finiarrak - Baltikoko ekialdeko kostaldean, Karelian eta Finlandian finkaturiko herria zen.
  • Frankoak - Mendebaldeko germaniar tribuen konfederazio aldakorra izan zen.[18]
  • Frisiarrak - Rhin-Mosa-Eskaldaren delta eta Ems ibaiaren artean bizi ziren herri germaniarra, egungo herbeheretarren aitzindariak.[18] Finn erregeak Ipar Itsasoko kostaldera bizitzera zuzendu zituen.
  • Gepidiarrak - Vistula ibaiaren ahoan agertu eta Transilvanian finkaturiko herri germaniarra zen.[19] Sueziar eta Daniarrekinbatera aipatzen dira Beowulfen, Östergötlandeko herria bezala.
  • Headobardoak (antzinako eskandinavieraz: Heaðobardr), Saxonia beherean aurkitu zitezkeen germaniar herria, seguruenik Lombardiarren adar batetik sortua. Olerkian, Daniarrekin gudan dagoen herria bezala deskribatzen da.[20][21]
  • Helmingak - Wealhþeow erreginaren herria.[22]
  • Hetwareak (Chattuarii edo Attoarii) - Frankoen parte den edo harremanduriko tribu germaniarra.
  • Hugak - Frankoen parte den edo harremanduriko tribu germaniarra.
  • Heaðoræmak - Norvegiako hego-ekialdeko tribua.
  • Ingwins - Daniarrentzat erabilitako izena, and "Ing-en lagunak" esan nahi du.
  • Jutoak - Jutlandia penintsulako aintzinako leinu germaniarra ziren, erromatarrak joan ostean, Ingalaterrako migrazio eta kokamenduan parte hartu zutenak.[23]
  • Merewioingak- Frankoen dinastia agintaria; Frankoen nazioari erreferentzia egiteko metonimia bezala ere erabiltzen da.
  • Sceadugengak - "Itzaleko ibiltariak" edo "gaueko joanak" bezala deskribatzen ziren, pertsonaia ezagun bakarra Grendel zen.[24][25]
  • Scyldingak - Daniarren klan agintaria, erregeek osatua; Daniar nazioari erreferentzia egiteko metonimia bezala ere erabiltzen da.[26]
  • Scylfingak - Suediarren klan agintaria; Suediar nazioari erreferentzia egiteko metonimia bezala ere erabiltzen da
  • Suediarrak - zentroa egungo Upplanden zuen tribua.
  • Wægmundingak - suediar klan ezaguna zen Beowulfen. Partaideetako batzuk Wægmund (klanaren aitzindaria, izena ematen diona), Beowulf, Ecgþeow eta Wiglaf ziren.
  • Wendlas - Vendsysseleko herria, Jutlandeko iparraldean.
  • Wulfingak - Bewolfen eta beste kontaizun garaikideetan aipaturiko klan boteretsua da, istorioetan geografikoki definitu ez den arren, beste antzinako eskandinaviarreko iturriek Östergötlanden kokatzen dute. Heaðolaf eta seguruenik Wealhþeow pertsonaien jatorrizko herria da.[27]

Pertsonaiak[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

  • Ælfhere - a kinsman of Wiglaf and Beowulf
  • Æschere - Hroðgar's closest counselor and comrade, killed by Grendel's Mother.
  • Banstan - the father of Breca.
  • Beow or Beowulf - an early Danish king and the son of Scyld, but not the same character as the hero of the poem.
  • Beowulf - son of Ecgtheow, and the eponymous hero of the Anglo-Saxon poem.
  • Breca - Beowulf's childhood friend who competed with him in a swimming match.
  • Cain - biblical character described as an ancestor of Grendel who is infamous for killing his brother Abel, the first murder. Killing your kin was the greatest sin in Anglo-Saxon culture.
  • Dæghrefn - a Frankish warrior killed by Beowulf.
  • The Dragon - beast (Old English, wyrm) that ravages Beowulf's kingdom and which Beowulf must slay at the end of the poem. It is the cause of Beowulf's death.
  • Eadgils - a Swedish king also mentioned extensively in the Norse sagas.
  • Eanmund - a Swedish prince, and the brother of Eadgils.
  • Ecglaf - Unferð's father.
  • Ecgþeow - Beowulf's father who belonged to the Swedish Wægmunding clan. He joined the Geats after having been banished for killing the Wulfing Heaðolaf, and married a Geatish princess.
  • Ecgwela - an earlier Danish king.
  • Elan - possibly an incomplete name for Hroðgar's sister, see Yrsa, below.
  • Eofor - the "boar". A Geatish warrior who avenged the death of Hæþcyn by slaying Ongenþeow during the Swedish-Geatish wars. He was recompensed with the daughter of king Hygelac.
  • Eomær - son of king Offa of Angel
  • Eormenric - a semi-legendary Gothic king of the 3rd and 4th centuries, mentioned by Roman historians.
  • Finn, a Frisian lord whose tale picks up where the Finnsburg Fragment ends.
  • Fitela - a Germanic hero
  • Folcwalda - the father of Finn
  • Freawaru - the daughter of King Hroðgar and Queen Wealhþeow and wife of Ingeld, king of the Heaðobards.
  • Froda king of the Heaðobard's and father of Ingeld. He also appears in Norse tradition.
  • Garmund - the father of Offa of Angel
  • Grendel - one of three antagonists (along with Grendel's Mother and the dragon).
  • Grendel's mother - one of three antagonists (along with Grendel and the dragon). Sometimes referred to as Hag.
  • Guðlaf - a warrior in Hnæf's retinue.
  • Healfdene - Hroðgar's father and predecessor, also prominent in Norse tradition.
  • Hama - a Germanic hero
  • Halga - Hroðgar's brother. He is hardly mentioned in Beowulf but he is a prominent character in Norse tradition.
  • Hæþcyn - the son of the Geatish king Hreðel.
  • Hæreð - the father of Hygd, queen of the Geats.
  • Heaðolaf - Wulfing killed by Beowulf's father Ecgþeow.
  • Heardred - the son of Hygelac, king of the Geats, and his queen Hygd.
  • Heming - a kinsman of Garmund
  • Hengest - a Danish lord who attacked the Frisians to avenge Hnæf
  • Heorogar - Hroðgar's brother and predecessor.
  • Heoroweard - Heorogar's son; Hroðgar's nephew. According to Norse tradition, his attempt to become king would cause the end of the Scylding clan.
  • Herebeald - the son of the Geatish king Hreðel. Beowulf was his nephew. Herebeald was killed with an arrow by his brother Hæþcyn in a hunting accident, which caused their father Hreðel to die from grief. His story may correspond to the myth of Baldr's death in Norse mythology.
  • Heremod - an early Danish king.
  • Hereric - a relative of Heardred
  • Hildeburh - the daughter of the Danish king Hoc and the wife of the Finn - king of the Frisians.
  • Hnæf - the son of the Danish lord Hoc and brother of Hildeburh. He was killed by Finn.
  • Hoc - a Danish lord and the father of Hildeburh and Hnæf.
  • Hondscio - a Geatish warrior. He is killed and devoured by Grendel, right before Beowulf fights and defeats the monster.
  • Hreðel - king of the Geats.
  • Hreðric and Hroðmund, the two sons of Hroðgar.
  • Hroðgar - king of the Danes; married to Wealhþeow. Also prominent in Norse tradition.
  • Hroðulf (also known as Hrólfr Kraki), Hroðgar's nephew, but more prominent in Norse tradition.
  • Hun - a Frisian warrior who gives Hengest the sword Lafing.
  • Hygd - queen of the Geats; the wife of King Hygelac.
  • Hygelac - king of the Geats; the husband of Hygd. Existence attested by other sources. Death during the poem dated to c 516.
  • Ingeld - a Heaðobard lord; married to Freawaru, daughter of Hroðgar. He also appears in Norse tradition.
  • Merewing - a Frankish king.
  • Modþryð - a princess, later queen, who punished inferiors who looked her directly in the eye; later marries, and is reformed by, Offa of Angel.
  • Offa of Angel, a king of the Angles who also appears in Norse tradition.
  • Ohthere - king of the Swedish house of Scylfings, and also mentioned in Norse tradition. The father of Eadgils and Eanmund, and the brother of Onela.
  • Onela - king of the Swedish house of Scylfings, and also mentioned in Norse tradition. The brother of Ohthere.
  • Ongenþeow - king of Sweden. Slew the Geatish king Hæþcyn, but was himself killed by Eofor, during the Swedish-Geatish wars.
  • Oslaf - a warrior in Hnæf's retinue.
  • Scyld - (Scyld Scēfing) warrior king who founded the ruling house in Denmark.
  • Sigemund - a legendary Germanic hero whom Beowulf is compared to.
  • Swerting - the grandfather of Hygelac
  • Unferð - a thegn of the Danish lord Hroðgar.
  • Wæls - the father of Sigemund
  • Wayland Smith - a smith of Germanic legend who forged Beowulf's breast plate.
  • Wealhþeow - queen of the Danes; married to Hroðgar.
  • Weohstan - the father of Wiglaf and a Swedish warrior fighting for Onela. He also appears to be mentioned in a stanza in the Prose Edda.
  • Wiglaf - Beowulf's relative. A Swedish warrior of the Waegmunding clan who helps Beowulf slay the dragon.
  • Wondred - Eofor eta Wulfen aita.
  • Wulf - Eoforren anaia.
  • Wulfgar - (otsoa + spear) the herald of Hroðgar, renowned for his great wisdom.
  • Yrmenlaf - Æschereren anaia gaztea.
  • Yrs(e) - .

Herri-kulturan[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

Telebista[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

  • Beowulf: Return to the Shieldlands (2016).

Zinema[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

Erreferentziak[aldatu | aldatu iturburu kodea]

  1. Grigsby, John. (2005). Beowulf & Grendel : the truth behind England's oldest myth. Watkins ISBN 1-84293-153-9. PMC 61177107. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-19).
  2. Carruthers, Leo M.. (1998). Beowulf. Didier Érudition ISBN 2-86460-347-0. PMC 40563580. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-19).
  3. (Ingelesez) Frank, Roberta. (2007-10). «A Scandal in Toronto: "The Dating of "Beowulf" " a Quarter Century On» Speculum 82 (4): 843–864. doi:10.1017/S0038713400011313. ISSN 0038-7134. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  4. Kiernan, Kevin S.. (1996). Beowulf and the Beowulf manuscript. (Rev. ed. argitaraldia) University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-472-08412-7. PMC 35243440. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-19).
  5. Tolkien, J. R. R.. (1997). The monsters and the critics, and other essays. HarperCollins ISBN 0-261-10263-X. PMC 60380802. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-19).
  6. «Digitised Manuscripts» www.bl.uk (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-19).
  7. Orchard, Andy. (2003). Pride and prodigies : studies in the monsters of the Beowulf-manuscript. ISBN 978-1-4426-5709-0. PMC 903968113. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-19).
  8. Doufikar-Aerts, Faustina. A Letter in Bits And Pieces: the ePistoLA ALexAndri Ad AristoteLem ArABicA. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  9. A Beowulf handbook. University of Nebraska Press 1997 ISBN 0-8032-1237-2. PMC 35262500. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  10. Beowulf : a new verse translation. Broadview Press 2000 ISBN 0-585-28178-5. PMC 45728489. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  11. «Manuscripts and archives» The British Library (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  12. Kirk, Dobbie, Elliott Van. (1953). Beowulf, and Judith. Columbia University Press (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  13. Kiernan, Kevin S.. (1996). Beowulf and the Beowulf manuscript. (Rev. ed. argitaraldia) University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-472-08412-7. PMC 35243440. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  14. Chickering, Howell D. (1977). Beowulf (dual-language ed.). New York: Doubleday.
  15. Newton, Sam. (1993). The origins of Beowulf and the pre-Viking kingdom of East Anglia. D.S. Brewer ISBN 0-585-16288-3. PMC 44958438. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  16. «Old English Translator» www.oldenglishtranslator.co.uk (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  17. «Wayback Machine» web.archive.org 2005-04-11 (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  18. a b The Oxford classical dictionary.. (Fourth edition. argitaraldia) 2012 ISBN 978-0-19-954556-8. PMC 779530090. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  19. (Ingelesez) «3. THE KINGDOM OF THE GEPIDS» mek.oszk.hu (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  20. (Ingelesez) Olson, Oscar Ludvig. (2005(e)ko ots. 2(a)). [https://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/14878 The Relation of the Hrólfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarímur to Beowulf A Contribution To The History Of Saga Development In England And The Scandinavian Countries. ] (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  21. (Suedieraz) «973-974 (Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 10. Gossler - Harris)» runeberg.org 1909 (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  22. Gardner, Jennifer. The Peace Weaver: Wealhþēow in Beowulf. Diss. Western Carolina University. March 2006.
  23. Campbell, James. (1982). The Anglo-Saxons. Cornell University Press ISBN 0-8014-1482-2. PMC 8675568. (Noiz kontsultatua: 2022-08-18).
  24. Thorpe, Anglo-Saxon Poems, p. 48
  25. Heyne, Beowulf, pp. 129, 228, s.v. "genga"; p. 298, s.v. "scadu-genga"
  26. Joan Hugo van Bolhuis, De Noormannen in Nederland, Volume 2, p. 25
  27. Nerman, Birger (1925). Det svenska rikets uppkomst. Stockholm: Generalstabens litografiska anstalt.

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